HULE is ‘matter’ or ‘material’. This ancient Greek word is sometimes interchangeable with <ousia> (substance).

Epiktetos (Epictetus) maintains that external things are the raw material of our <prohairesis> (free will to choose among things). He also says, “the raw material for the work of a an excellent person is his own guiding reason (<hêgemonikon>)”.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Marcus Aurelius) writes about how we can “convert any obstacle into the raw material for our own purpose”.

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<Hule> is ‘matter’ or ‘material’ and it is also the first matter of the cosmos. Thus it is from this matter which the four elements arise, according to the doctrines of Empedokles (Empedocles) and Aristoteles (Aristotle). Talking of Aristoteles we should mention hylomorphism. It is the idea that things are combinations of matter and form. Consequently, three elements are crucial: the two “components” (matter and form), and the mode of composition. Moreover, it is likely that, for Aristoteles, the concept of matter is in terms of composition. Matter is what plays a certain function in the compound. It is, in some ways, the passive contributor in the act of composition.

Aristoteles bases his ethical view on this hylomorphism. In fact, he says that because of his form, a human being has certain talents. So, his task in life is to exercise those capacities as well and as fully as possible. Now, the most specific human ability, which is not included in the form of any other organism, is the ability to think. Then, the best human life is an existence lived with rationality.