PARRESIA is ‘outspokenness in risky circumstances’. In fact, this ancient Greek noun refers, for instance, to free-speaking (in reproving ways) about tyrants, in their presence.

<Parresiaste> is he who practices this virtue. He could push himself to the point of actually risking his own life because of his frankness. In fact, there is nothing valuable in outspokenness if the speaker does not risk something because of his behaviour. In the very action of <parresia> the speaker proves personality, fortitude and courage. All these features are clear evidences of his authentic philosophical attitude.

Sokratiko Logo

<Parresia> is ‘outspokenness in risky circumstances’. It is not a specific manifestation of <andreia> as it were an application of bravery in the field of speaking. <Parresia> is something more and something which requires different qualities. As an example, a young soldier might show fearlessness by throwing himself smack dab in the middle of a battle. But the same soldier might have some problems in openly criticizing his commander. This happens for the very reason that he is a loyal soldier trained never to disrespect his bosses. Moreover, outspokenness requires an articulated frame of mind and a considerable level of maturity. It is not enough to have the guts to criticise a king but it is necessary to do it whitout trembling or showing any other sign of fear.